St. 巴兹尔大教堂,俄罗斯. 图片由Getty Images提供.

St. 巴兹尔大教堂,俄罗斯. 图片由Getty Images提供.

Vladimir Putin: risk-taker who is gambling his country’s future

20世纪90年代初, 当时他还是圣彼得堡副市长, Vladimir Putin was known to a member of the city’s legislature, 维克多Talanov. 职业心理学家, Talanov prepared a study of Putin in which he concluded that one of his subject’s fundamental psychological characteristics was a very high tolerance of risk.


作为俄罗斯的领导人, Putin has consistently demonstrated this characteristic, while western countries have consistently failed to realise its significance and respond appropriately. Their failure to impose heavy sanctions on Russia until its invasion of Ukraine last month encouraged Putin to believe that his aggression would meet with little resistance.

自2000年上台以来, Putin has established an authoritarian regime by repression and illegality. Elections turned into a sham as opposition parties and candidates were prevented from standing and the results were falsified. The fabricated votes of non-existent voters were 授予了普京和他的政党. 大众传媒的独立性被终结了.

The oligarchs Boris Berezovsky and Vladimir Gusinsky were driven into exile because their media empires had influence over public opinion and were critical of Putin. Their television channels, Gusinsky’s NTV and Berezovsky’s ORT, had 帮助鲍里斯·叶利钦 赢得1996年的总统大选.

Gusinsky’s Media-Most media group was taken over by Gazprom, the state-owned gas company. Berezovsky was forced to sell his shareholding in ORT to Roman Abramovich. 从那时起,ORT也被广泛视为一种 宣传器官. The third independent television station, TV-6, was forced into liquidation. Consequently, all the national television channels were 在普京手中 或者在他的支配下.

In 2003, 普京把矛头指向了尤科斯, 俄罗斯最大的石油公司, 以及董事长米哈伊尔·霍多尔科夫斯基. Khodorkovsky’s sins were that he financed parties other than Putin’s in Russia’s parliamentary elections and was critical of the regime’s corruption.

Putin’s regime prosecuted Khodorkovsky on trumped-up charges of embezzlement and tax evasion, confiscated his company and transferred most of it to a state-owned oil company, 俄罗斯石油公司. 霍多尔科夫斯基在监狱里呆了10多年.

Putin was so vicious that he had Khodorkovsky prosecuted on further charges in 2010, 那时他还在监狱里. The charges were so patently false that the chairman of the Moscow Bar Association called them a “对正义的耻辱”.

亚历山大•利特维年科, the former security service officer whom Putin had himself fired and who had fled to Britain in 2000, 被放射性毒药谋杀2006年,他在伦敦发现了钋. The British tribunal which investigated his murder 认为这是普京下的命令. Berezovsky died in mysterious circumstances in Ascot in 2013, perhaps by suicide, perhaps 被刺客勒死.

差不多从同一时间开始, neighbouring states have accused Russia of attacking them and their people. 2004年9月有人试图 杀了尤先科, the pro-western candidate for the Ukrainian presidency, using the poison dioxin.

2007年4月, hackers directed by the Kremlin launched a massive cyber-attack on the websites of banks and public institutions in Estonia. The Estonian government was so alarmed that Nato had to consider whether such a cyber-attack triggered 北约条约第五条.

2008年普京 发动非法战争 – his troops invaded Georgia and occupied its territory. Putin later recognised the breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent states.


2008年至2012年, Putin served as prime minister rather than president because the Russian constitution limited the president to two four-year terms. 而不是, his political ally Dmitri Medvedev served a term as president before allowing Putin to run again for the top job.

2012年,他再次当选总统, Putin commenced a war on the west which he has steadily escalated...

保罗·马德雷尔医生, a Lecturer in 国际 History and 国际 Relations at 凤凰彩票官网, discusses Putin's "dangerously aggressive and risky rule" in 谈话.

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